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Plural NounsWhen you refer to more than one noun, you use the plural form of that noun.
The plural of a noun is usually formed by adding an 's' at the end of the word. For example: the plural of cat is cats; the plural of flower is flowers, and the plural of computer is computers.
If the word ends in s, x, z, ch, or sh, the plural is usually formed by adding 'es.' This is because when you add an 's' to the end of these words, you have to add an extra syllable to the the word in order to prounounce it. For example: the plural of boss is bosses, the plural of box is boxes, the plural of buzz is buzzes, the plural of lunch is lunches, and the plural of brush is brushes.
Not all plurals end in 's' or 'es'. Irregular nouns are those that do not use the regular plural ending. The following are some irregular plurals.
|Type of Noun||Rule for Forming the Plural||Examples||Exceptions|
|Word ends in s, x, ch, or sh||Add 'es' to the end||arch/arches, atlas/atlases, ax/axes, bash/bashes, bench/benches, bias/biases, botch/botches, box/boxes, brush/brushes, bunch/bunches, bus/buses, bush/bushes, canvas/canvases, catch/catches, church/churches, class/classes, compass/compasses, crash/crashes, cross/crosses, dais/daises, dish/dishes, dress/dresses, equinox/equinoxes, etch/etches, fetch/fetches, fix/fixes, fox/foxes, gas/gases, grass/grasses, itch/itches, kiss/kisses, larch/larches, lash/lashes, latch/latches, mantis/mantises, march/marches, marsh/marshes, mash/mashes, mass/masses, match/matches, moss/mosses, mix/mixes, pass/passes, patch/patches, pox/poxes, radish/radishes, sash/sashes, sketch/sketches, starch/starches, stitch/stitches, tax/taxes, touch/touches, trash/trashes, twitch/twitches, vehicle/vehicles, wish/wishes, witch/witches, wrench/wrenches||axis/axes, ox/oxen|
|Word ends in z||Add 'zes' to the end||buzz/buzzes, fizz/fizzes, klutz/klutzes, quiz/quizzes, topaz/topazes, waltz/waltzes|
|Ending in 'y' preceded by a vowel||Add an 's'||alley/alleys, attorney/attorneys, essay/essays, boy/boys, delay/delays, guy/guys, jay/jays, key/keys, osprey/ospreys, play/plays, ray/rays, stray/strays, toy/toys, tray/trays, turkey/turkeys, valley/valleys, way/ways|
|Ending in 'y' preceded by a consonant||Change the final 'y' to 'ies'||ally/allies, army/armies, baby/babies, beauty/beauties, berry/berries, cherry/cherries, city/cities, colony/colonies, country/countries, dictionary/dictionaries, duty/duties, enemy/enemies, fairy/fairies, family/families, ferry/ferries, fly/flies, gallery/galleries, history/histories, injury/injuries, jelly/jellies, kitty/kitties, lady/ladies, lily/lilies, navy/navies, history/histories, party/parties, pony/ponies, reply/replies, secretary/secretaries, sky/skies, spy/spies, story/stories, study/studies, symphony/symphonies, theory/theories, trophy/trophies, try/tries, university/universities, variety/varieties, victory/victories|
|Ends with 'f' or 'fe' (but not 'ff' or 'ffe')||Change the 'f' or 'fe' to 'ves'||calf/calves, elf/elves, half/halves, hoof/hooves, knife/knives, leaf/leaves, life/lives, loaf/loaves, knife/knives, loaf/loaves, scarf/scarves, self/selves, shelf/shelves, wife/wives, wolf/wolves||belief/beliefs, chef/chefs, chief/chiefs, dwarf/dwarfs, grief/griefs, gulf/gulfs, handkerchief/handkerchiefs, kerchief/kerchiefs, mischief/mischiefs, muff/muffs, oaf/oafs, proof/proofs, roof/roofs, safe/safes, turf/turfs|
|Ends with 'o'||Add 'es'||buffalo/buffaloes, cargo/cargoes, echo/echoes, embargo/embargoes, grotto/grottoes, hero/heroes, mosquito/mosquitoes, motto/mottoes, potato/potatoes, tomato/tomatoes, torpedo/torpedoes, veto/vetoes, volcano/volcanoes, zero/zeroes||albino/albinos, armadillo/armadillos, auto/autos, cameo/cameos, cello/cellos, combo/combos, duo/duos, ego/egos, folio/folios, halo/halos, inferno/infernos, lasso/lassos, memento/mementos, memo/memos, piano/pianos, photo/photos, portfolio/portfolios, pro/pros, silo/silos, solo/solos, stereo/stereos, studio/studios, taco/tacos, tattoo/tattoos, tuxedo/tuxedos, typo/typos, veto/vetoes, video/videos, yo/yos, zoo/zoos|
|Irregular||Variable||child/children, die/dice, foot/feet, goose/geese, louse/lice, man/men, mouse/mice, ox/oxen, person/people, that/those, this/these, tooth/teeth, woman/women|
|Ends with 'is' (from a Greek root)||Change final 'is' to 'es'||analysis/analyses, axis/axes, basis/bases, crisis/crises, ellipsis/ellipses, hypotheses/hypothesis, neurosis/neuroses, oasis/oases, paralysis/paralyses, parenthesis/parentheses, synopsis/synopses, synthesis/syntheses, thesis/theses|
|Ends with 'us' (if the word is from the Latin)||Change final 'us' to 'i'||alumnus/alumni, bacillus/bacilli, cactus/cacti, focus/foci, fungus/fungi, locus/loci, nucleus/nuclei, radius/radii, stimulus/stimuli, syllabus/syllabi, terminus/termini, torus/tori||abacus/abacuses, crocus/crocuses, genus/genera, octopus/octopuses (not octopi, since octopus is from the Greek language), rhombus/rhombuses, walrus/walruses|
|Ends with 'um'||Change final 'um' to 'a'||bacterium/bacteria, curriculum/curricula, datum/data, erratum/errata, gymnasium/gymnasia, medium/media, memorandum/memoranda, ovum/ova, stratum/strata||album/albums, stadium/stadiums|
|Ends with 'a' but not 'ia' (from a Latin root)||Change final 'a' to 'ae'||alga/algae, alumna/alumnae, antenna/antennae, larva/larvae, nebula/nebulae, pupa/pupae (or pupas), vertebra/vertebrae, vita/vitae||agenda/agendas, alfalfa/alfalfas, aurora/auroras, banana/bananas, barracuda/barracudas, cornea/corneas, nova/novas, phobia/phobias|
|Ends with 'on' (from a Greek root -- not 'tion')||Change final 'on' to 'a'||automaton/automata, criterion/criteria, phenomenon/phenomena, polyhedron/polyhedra||balloon/balloons, carton/cartons and many, many others|
|Ends with 'ex'||Change final 'ex' to 'ices'||vertex/vertices, vortex/vortices||annex/annexes, complex/complexes, duplex/duplexes, hex/hexes, index/indexes or indices|
|Unchanging||Singular and plural are the same||advice, aircraft, bison, corn, deer, equipment , evidence, fish (sometimes), gold, information, jewelry, kin, legislation, luck, luggage, moose, music, offspring, sheep, silver, swine, trousers, trout, wheat|
|Only the plural exists||Unchanging||barracks, bellows, cattle, congratulations, deer, dregs, eyeglasses, gallows, headquarters, mathematics, means, measles, mumps, news, oats, pants, pliers, pajamas, scissors, series, shears, shorts, species, tongs, tweezers, vespers|
|Compound nouns||The plural ending is usually added to the main noun||attorney general/attorneys general, bill of fare/bills of fare, chief of staff/chiefs of staff, court-martial/courts-martial, daughter-in-law/daughters-in-law, father-in-law/fathers-in-law, full moon/full moons, he-man/he-men, journeyman/journeymen, lady-in-waiting/ladies-in-waiting, lieutenant colonel/lieutenant colonels, maid-of-honor, maids-of-honor, master-at-arms/masters-at-arms, middle class/middle classes, mother-in-law/mothers-in-law, post office/post offices, secretary of state/secretaries of state, sergeant major/sergeants major, son-in-law/sons-in-law, passer-by/passers-by, she-wolf/she-wolves, stepsister/stepsisters, ten-year-old/ten-year-olds|
Note: Collective nouns are words for a group of items or beings. For example, a group of cows is called a herd, a group of baseball players is called a team, and a group of ants is called a colony. For some collective nouns for groups of animals, click here.
Related Pages, Activities and Worksheets:
Plural Animal Nouns #1
Write plural animal nouns for dog, puppy, calf, wolf, monkey, fly, mouse, louse, sheep, and trout. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- kitten, ox, deer, goose, moose. Or go to the answers.
Plural Animal Nouns #2
Write plural animal nouns for bird, fox, goose, moose, salmon, butterfly, pony, cattle, deer, and ox. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- guppy, donkey, canary, cod, reindeer. Or go to the answers.
Plural Birthday-related Nouns
Write plural nouns for gift, candy, cake, candle, party, wish, friend, guest, clown, balloon. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined nouns made into plurals -- chair, present, person, bow, ribbon, gift, child. Or go to the answers.
Plural Body-related Nouns
Write plural nouns for foot, elbow, tooth, eye, body, wrist, ankle, artery, calf, and vertebra. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined nouns made into plurals -- arm, leg, foot, knee, finger, toe, tooth. Or go to the answers.
Plural Clothing Nouns
Write plural clothing nouns for dress, pants, coat, shirt, scarf, shorts, coat, glove, muff, and sandal. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- sock, shoe, scarf, cap, dress, mitten, boot. Or go to the answers.
Plural Fall/Autumn Nouns
Write plural fall nouns for leaf, haystack, rake, apple, hay, pumpkin, scarecrow, cobweb, turkey, and corn. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- field, bale, child, pear, plum, spider, spiderling. Or go to the answers.
Plural Flower Nouns
Write plural flower words for daisy, tulip, iris, violet, lily, aster, poppy, rose, zinnia, and crocus. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- bouquet, pansy, orchid, peony, daffodil. Or go to the answers.
Plural Food Nouns
Write plural food nouns for cherry, jelly, dish, peach, tomato, potato, sandwich, glass, loaf, and knife. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- berry, cheese, candy, meatloaf, dish, herb, spice. Or go to the answers.
Plural People Nouns
Write plural people nouns for baby, lady, woman, man, family, wife, boy, girl, child, and self. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- lady, gentleman, toddler, aunt, uncle, kid, adult, fireman, hero. Or go to the answers.
Plural Plant Nouns
Write plural plant nouns for leaf, bush, branch, twig, tree, sprout, blossom, root, ivy, and cactus. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- bough, cone, seed, bulb, flower, bud, vines. Or go to the answers.
Plural School Nouns
Write plural school nouns for desk, class, lunch, recess, library, study, bus, sketch, dictionary, and trophy. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- school, pencil, university, cafeteria, child, compass. Or go to the answers.
Plural Sports Nouns
Write plural sports nouns for play, ski, stadium arena, trophy, victory, athlete, pitch, toss, and referee. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- player, team, loss, race, uniform, match. Or go to the answers.
Plural Spring Nouns
Write plural spring nouns for tulip, crocus, butterfly, rainbow, grass, sprout, egg, bloom, robin, umbrella. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- baby, blossom, puddle, tadpole, frog, bird, chick. Or go to the answers.
Plural Summer Nouns
Write plural spring nouns for vacation, daisy, popsicle, ferry, fly, plane, beach, hurricane, shorts, sunglasses. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- family, mosquito, cactus, towel, parent, trip. Or go to the answers.
Plural Thanksgiving Nouns
Write plural Thanksgiving-related nouns for turkey, feast, yam, cranberry, leaf, potato, pie, family, loaf, colony. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- roll, dish, pumpkin, pie, drumstick, slice. Or go to the answers.
Plural Winter Nouns
Write plural winter nouns for snowman, coat, icicle, earmuff, scarf, skate, snowflake, chimney, blizzard, fireplace. Then rewrite each sentence with the underlined noun made into a plural -- holiday, sweater, jacket, ski, glove, mitten. Or go to the answers.
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